Hierarchy

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Hierarchy is a modularity technique used in many complex systems.

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The coupling of the system is reduced by distinguishing different levels and only allowing a level to interact with the level directly above and below.

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A hierarchical description of a system often results from adopting a top-down approach.

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In "The Architecture of Complexity", Herbert Simon uses a metaphor about watchmakers to show the difference in evolution between a system that is hierarchically organized and one that is not.

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